The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock). The desire for a more ambitious target was maintained in the agreement, with the promise of further limiting global temperatures to 1.5oC. The agreement requires rich nations to meet a funding commitment of $100 billion a year beyond 2020 and to use that figure as a “land” for the additional aid agreed until 2025. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.  The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries responsible for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratified, approved or ratified the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.
 175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. The Paris Agreement was signed on 12 December 2015 at the COP21 (United Nations Conference on Climate Change) at the gates of Paris, hence the name “Paris Agreement”. The 197 countries of the world (two of which are only observer states – the Holy See and the State of Palestine) have signed the agreement and have pledged to work together to control climate emissions. The Paris Agreement is a climate agreement that was concluded by the 197 parties (representing almost every country in the world) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and then ratified by 187 of those countries. The Paris Agreement, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or Paris, is often the subject of discussions on the climate crisis. The Paris Agreement sets clear targets for global cooperation to stem the rise in global temperature, and almost every country in the world has signed the agreement. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding.